On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead. Following the amendments proposed by the House of Lords and the ping-pong between the two houses, the bill was granted royal approval on 23 January 2020, allowing ratification on the British side. [39] EU and UK negotiators have reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the future EU-UK relationship on 23 March 2018. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially titled the UK`s withdrawal agreement from Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK) [5] which sets the conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019[6] and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the withdrawal agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. The withdrawal agreement passed its third and final reading in the House of Commons on January 9, 2020 by 330 votes in and 231 against. [11] On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal that will only come into force if effective alternative arrangements are not demonstrated before the end of the transitional period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union.

The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed. [19] The WAB transforms Boris Johnson`s withdrawal agreement, which is a draft international treaty, into British law and allows the government to ratify it. If the UK does not ask for an extension beyond 2020, trade relations will be governed by any agreement or World Trade Organisation rules from the beginning of 2021. On July 24, 2018, the government presented a white paper on the bill and how legislation works. [2] The bill was first introduced by the government at the second session stagnated on 21 October 2019 by the government, entitled “A Bill to Implement, and make other provision in connection with, the agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU under Art 50, paragraph 2 of the Treaty on European Union which sets the arrangements for the rekingdom from the EU”. [4] This bill was not discussed further after second reading in the House of Commons on October 22, 2019, and passed on November 6, when Parliament was dissolved in preparation for the 2019 general election. The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which will last until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adapt to the new situation and the new era, so that the British and European governments can negotiate a new trade agreement between the EU and the UK. [17] [18] After the agreement of both chambers on the text of the law, he obtained royal approval on 23 January.